Table of Contents

  • Irlen Screeners in your area
  •  
  • About Irlen Syndrome
  • • Distortions
  • • Facts about Irlen Syndrome
  • • Self Test
  • • Books and Reference Material

  • Traumatic Brain Injuries & Concussions

     
  • News & Updates
  • • Irlen Newsletters
  • • Irlen in the News
  • • Updates and Research
  • Resources & Information
  • • Irlen Information for Professionals
  • • Irlen Student Information
  • • How to help your Irlen Student
  • Scientific Studies
  • • References
  • • Scientific Research for Irlen
  • • Scientific Reasoning
  • Useful Links
  • • irlen.com
  • • readingandwriting.ab.ca
  • • irlenatlantique.ca
  • • irlen.ca
  • • irlencanada.ca
  • Testimonials
  •       Irlen Scientific
          
       Research

    go to Science Research page

        Books and Reference                Material

    Reading by the Colors written by Helen Irlen available to purchase.

    Learn more about the Irlen Syndrome by reading, "The Irlen Revolution" and "Reading by the Colors" written by Helen Irlen.
    Both of these resource books are a must read for all those who work with children: teachers, parents, physicians, eye care professionals, and so on. I can just about guarantee that you will know someone who is affected by Irlen Syndrome and who will be eternally grateful to you for directing them to this resource.

        YouTube Video Reference                Material

    View YouTube Videos. Learn how Irlen coloured overlays and filtered lenses can help with migraines and headaches, reading, math comprehension, head injuries and learn about other Irlen success stories.

    View YouTube Videos. Learn how Irlen coloured overlays and filtered lenses can help with migraines and headaches, reading, math comprehension, head injuries and other Irlen success stories.
    Nola Stigings - Irlen Specialist serving Central and Southern Alberta (including Red Deer, Innisfail, Calgary and Medicine Hat) and in Cranbrook, BC.

    Nola Stigings, Certified Irlen Diagnostician/Clinic Director, President of the Canadian Association of Irlen Professionals (CAIP). Approved by the Irlen Institute for testing in Central and Southern Alberta (including Red Deer, Innisfail, Calgary and Medicine Hat) and in Cranbrook, BC.

         Free Irlen Self-Test

             click here

    View Sample Distortions

             click here

    Irlen-lenses.

    The Irlen Method uses precision-tinted coloured overlays and filtered lenses. The Irlen Method employs advanced spectrometer technology meeting strict standards of colour balancing for colour correction to correct light frequencies which are not processed correctly by those who suffer from Irlen Syndrome.

    The Irlen Institute Celebrates 30 Years And Continues Expanding Its Reach

    Helen Irlen

    Long Beach Business Journal Newspaper Article
     read more

    Irlen References

    References for Scientific studies on Irlen Syndrome

    Allen, P.M, Evans, B.J.W, Wilkins, A.J. (2010). Vision and Reading Difficulties. Ten Alps Creative: London.

    Allen, P.M, Hussain, A, Usherwood, C, Wilkins, A.J. (2010). Pattern-related visual stress, chromaticity and accommodation. Investigative Ophthalmology and Vision Science, in press.

    Barbolini, G., Caffo, E., Robinson, G.L., & Wright, A. (1998). Light sensitivity and some pervasive developmental disorders: autistic disorder, Asperger's disorder. Modena International Conference on Autism and Pervasive Developmental Disorders. Univer. Of Modena, Italy, 26-27 March.

    Barbolini, G., Migaldi, M., Wright, A., & Irlen, H. (1996). A biological and medical approach to remedial chromotherapy. Irlen Institute, Fourth International Directors/Screeners Conference, June 27-30, New Orleans, LA.

    Barbolini, G., Wright, A., Migaldi. M., & Irlen, H. (1996). A biological approach to remedial chromotherapy. Published in the form of a booklet. Available from: Irlen Centre East, 4 Park Farm Business Centre, Fornham St. Genevieve Bury St. Edmunds Suffolk IP28 6TS, UK.

    Blaskey, P., Sheiman, M., Parisi, M., Ciner, E.B., Gallaway, M., & Selznick, R. (1990). The Effectiveness of Irlen Filters for improved reading performance: A pilot study. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 23, 604-612.

    Borsting, E., Ridder, W.H., Dudeck, K., Kelley, C., Matsuir, L., & Motoyama, J. (1996). The presence of a magnocellular defect depends on the type of dyslexia. Vision Research, 36, 1047-1053.

    Bouldoukian, J.,, Wilkins, A.J., & Evans, Bruce J.W. (2002). Randomised controlled trial of the effect of coloured overlays on the rate of reading of people with specific learning difficulties. Ophthalmological and Physiological Optics, 22, 55-60.

    Bouma, H., & Legein, Ch.P. (1977). Foveal and parfoveal recognition of letters and words by dyslexics and by average readers. Neuropsycholgica, 15, 69-80.

    Bouma, H., & Legein, Ch.P. (1980). Dyslexia: A specific recoding deficit? An analysis of response latencies for letters and words in dyslexics and average readers. Neuropsychologica, 18, 285-298.

    Brannan, J.R., & Williams, M.C. (1988). Developmental versus sensory deficit effects on perceptual processing in the reading disabled. Perception and Psychophysics, 44, 437-444.

    Breitmeyer, B. (1980). Unmasking visual masking: a look at the "why" behind the veil of the "how". Psychology Review, 87, 52-69.

    Breitmeyer, B.G. (1989). A visually based deficit in specific reading disability. The Irish Journal of Psychology, 10, 534-541.

    Breitmeyer, B.G. (1993). Sustained (P) and transient (M) channels in vision: a review and implications for reading. In D.M. Willows, R.S. Kruk, & E. Corcos (Eds.), Visual processes in reading and reading disabilities. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. 95-110.

    Breitmeyer, B.F., & Breier, J.I. (1994). Effects of background color on reaction time to stimuli varying in size and contrast: inferences about human M channels. Vision Research, 34, 1039-1045.

    Breitmeyer, B.F., & Ogmen, H. (2000). Recent models and findings in visual backward masking: a comparison, review, and update. Perception & Psychophysics, 62(8).

    Breitmeyer, B.F., & Williams, M.C. (1990). Effects of isoluminant-background color on metacontrast and stroboscopic motion: Interactions between sustained (P) and transient (M) channels. Vision Research, 30(7) 1069-7052.

    Bruck, M. (1990). Word-recognition skills of adults with childhood diagnoses of dyslexia. Developmental Psychology, 26. 430-454.

    Chan, L.K.S., & Robinson, G.L.W. (1989). The effects of comprehension monitoring instruction for reading disabled students with and without tinted lenses. Australian Journal of Special Education, 13, 4-13.

    Chase, C.H. (1996). A visual deficit model of developmental dyslexia. In C.H. Chase, G.D. Rose, & G.F. Sherman (eds.), Developmental dyslexia: neural, cognitive, and genetic mechanisms (pp. 127-156). Timonium, MD: York Press.

    Chase, C.H., & Jenner, A. (1993). Magnocellular processing deficits affect temporal processing of dyslexics. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 682, 326-330.

    Chase, C., Ashourzadeh, A., Kelly, C., Monfette, S., & Kinsey, K. (2003). Can the magnocullular pathway read? Evidence from studies of color. Vision Research, 43, 1211-1222.

    Chelva, E., Collins, D.W.K., Levy, R.L., & McLaren, T.L. (1987). Preliminary electrophysical testing of subjects with prescribed Irlen tinted lenses. Dept. Biophysics, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital. Paper presented at the Dyslexia Research Foundation Seminar, Perth, W.A.

    Cheng, A., Eysel, U., & Vidyasagar, T. (2004). The role of the magnocellular pathway in serial deployment of visual attention. European Journal of Neuroscience, 20(8), 2188-2192.

    Chouinard, Brea D., Crystal I. Zhou, Stanislau Hrybouski, Esther S. Kim, Jacqueline Cummine (2011) A Functional Neuroimaging Case Study of Meares–Irlen Syndrome/Visual Stress (MISViS) Brain Topography, DOI 10.1007/s10548-011-0212-z

    Chronicle, E.P., & Wilkins, A.J. (1991) Colour and visual discomfort in migraineurs. The Lancet, 338, 890.

    Clay, M.M., & Imlach, R.H. (1971). Juncture, pitch and stress as reading behaviour variables. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behaviour, 10, 133-139.

    Cotton, M.M., & Evans, K.M. (1990). An evaluation of Irlen Lenses as a treatment for specific reading disorders. Australian Journal of Psychology, 42, 1-12.

    Covanis, A, Stodieck, S.R. and Wilkins, A.J. (2004). Treatment of photosensitivity. Epilepsia, 45, (Suppl. 1).:40-45.

    Croyle, L., (1998). Rate of reading, visual processing, colour and contrast. Australian Journal of Learning Disabilities, 3, 13-21. Demb, J.M., Boynton, G.M., Best, M., & Heeger, D.J. (1998). Psychophysical evidence for magnocellular pathway deficit in dyslexia. Vision Research, 28, 1555-1559.

    Demb, J.M., Boynton, G.M., & Heeger, D.J. (1998). Functional magnetic resonance imaging of early visual pathways in dyslexia. Journal of Neuroscience, 18, 6939-6951.

    Eden, G.F., VanMeter, J.W., Rumsey, J.M., Maisog, J.M., Woods, R.P., & Zeffiro, T.A. (1996). Abnormal processing of visual motion in dyslexia revealed by functional brain imaging. Nature, 382, 66-69.

    Evans, B. J. W, Wilkins, A. J, Busby, A, Jeanes, R, (1996). Optometric characteristics of children with reading difficulties who report a benefit from coloured filters. In: C.M. Dickinson, I. J. Murray, and D. Garden (Eds), John Dalton's Colour Vision Legacy. London; Taylor and Francis, pp. 709-715.

    Evans, B.J.W, Busby, A. Jeanes R, Wilkins, A.J. (1996). Optometric correlates of Meares-Irlen syndrome: a matched group study. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics, 15(5), 481-487.

    Evans, B.J.W, Lightstone, A, Eperjesi, F, Duffy, J, Speedwell, L, Patel, R. and Wilkins A.J. (1999). A review of the management of 323 consecutive patients seen in a specific learning difficulties clinic. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics, 19(6), 454-466.

    Evans, B.J.W, Patel, R, Wilkins, A.J. (2002). Optometric function in visually sensitive migraine before and after treatment with tinted spectacles. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics 22, 130-142.

    Evans, B. (1994). The relationship between optometric problems, visual discomfort and reading difficulties. Optician, 5436(207), 18-22.

    Evans, B.J., Cook, A., Richards, I.L., & Drasdo, N. (1994). Effect of pattern glare and colour overlays on a simulated reading task in dyslexics and normal readers. Optometry and Vision Science, 71, 619-628.

    Evans, Bruce J.W., & Joseph, Florence (2002). The effect of coloured filters on the rate of reading in an adults student population. Opthalmological and Physiological Optics, 22, 535-545.

    Floyd, R.A., Dain, S.J., Elliott, R.T. (2004). Is the perception of brightness different in poor readers? School of Optometry and Vision Science, University of new South Walkes, NSW 2052, Sydney, Australia, Vision Research, Jan: 44(2), 221-7.

    Geaney, E., McGeady, M., McMahon, T., Mahon, D., & Mullaney, P. (1991). Eyes, filters and reading. A pilot study. Report compiled from a pilot project conducted at Royal Victoria Eye Hospital, Adelaide Road, Dublin 2 and at the Irlen Centre, Palmerstown, Dublin 20.

    Geiger, G., & Lettvim, J. (1987). Peripheral vision in persons with dyslexia. The New England Journal of Medicine, 20, 1238-1243.

    Gole, G.A., Dibden, S.N., Pearson, C.R., Pidgeon, K.J., Hannell, G., Fitzgerald, B.A., Kortman, J.Y., & McGlinchey, N.D. (1989). Tinted lenses and dyslexics: A controlled study. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Opthalmology, 17, 137-141.

    Good, P.A., Taylor, R.H., Ophth, F.C., & Mortimer M.J., (1991). The use of tinted glasses in childhood migraine. Headache, September. Department of Ophthalmology, University of Birmingham, Birmingham and Midland Eye Hospital, Church Street, Birmingham, B3 2NS, England. Reprint requests to: Mr. P. A. Good.

    Gray, J. (1999). Visual perceptual difficulties and reading behavior: Irlen syndrome and eye colour. Unpublished Doctor of Philosophy Thesis, University of Bristol, UK.

    Grosser, G.S., & Spafford, C.S. (1990). Light sensitivity in peripheral retinal fields of dyslexic and proficient readers. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 71, 467-477.

    Gustafson, S., Samuelsson, S., & Ronnberg, J. (1997). Phonological training and reading skills: why do some resist? In B. Ericson & J. Ronnberg (Eds.), Reading disability and its treatment, Norrkoping, Sweden: Eve Malmquist Institute for Reading. Pp. 38-51.

    Hailey, D., & Lea, A. (1992). Irlen Lenses and the Reading Disabled. The Bulletin for Learning Disabilities. 2. (1). Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Canberra. 40-48.

    Hannell G., Gole, G.A., Dibden, S.M., Rooney, F., Pidgeon, K.J., & McGlinchey, N.D. (1989). Reading improvement with tinted lenses: A report of two cases. Clinical and Experimental Optometry, 72, 170-176.

    Hobbs, M. (1994). A study on the prevalence of vision problems and Irlen syndrome among students "At Risk". Unpublished manuscript. Study conducted in New Zealand.

    Holland, K.C., Tyrrell, R., & Wilkins, A. (1991). The effect of Irlen coloured lenses on saccadic eye movements and reading. Paper presented at the Coloured Spectacles and Reading Difficulties Seminar, London.

    Huang J, Zong X, Wilkins A, Jenkins B, Bozoki A, Cao Y. fMRI evidence that precision ophthalmic tints reduce cortical hyperactivation in migraine. Cephalalgia. 2011 Jun;31(8):925-36. Epub 2011 May 26.

    Hulme, C., & Hogben, M.J. (1997). How does a visual transient deficit affect reading? In C. Hulme & M. Snowling (Eds.), Dyslexia: biology, cognition and intervention. London, UK: Whurr. 59-70.

    Iovino, I., Fletcher, J.M., Breitmeyer, B.F., & Foorman, B.R. (1998). Colored overlays for visual perceptual deficits in children with reading disability and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: are they differentially effective? Journal of Clinical & Experimental Neuropsychology, 20(6) 791-806.

    Irlen, H. (1991a). Reading by the colors. New York: Avery.

    Irlen, H. (1994). Scotopic Sensitivity/Irlen Syndrome - Hypothesis and Explanation of the Syndrome. Journal of Behavioral Optometry, 5, 62-65.

    Irlen, H. (1997). Reading problems and Irlen coloured lenses. Dyslexia Review, 8(3), 4-7.

    Irlen, H., & Lass, M.J. (1989). Improving reading problems due to symptoms of Scotopic Sensitivity Syndrome using Irlen lenses and overlays. Education, 30, 1-5.

    Irlen, H., & Robinson, G.L. (1996). The effect of Irlen coloured filters on adult perception of workplace performance: a preliminary survey. Australian Journal of Remedial Education, 1, 7-17.

    Irvine, J.H., & Irvine, E.W. (1997). Scotopic Sensitivity Syndrome in a single individual (a case study). Report by the Naval Air Warfare Center, Weapons Division, China Lake, CA, April 1997.

    Jeanes, R., Busby, A., Martin, J., Lewis, E., Stevenson, N., Pointon, D., & Wilkins, A. (1997). Prolonged use of coloured overlays for classroom reading. Journal of Psychology, 88, 531-548.

    Johannes, S., Kussmaul, C.L., Muente, T.F., & Mangun, R. (1996). Developmental dyslexia: passive visual stimulation provides no evidence for a magnocellular processing defect. Neuropsychologia, 34, 1123-1127.

    Johnson, P.J., Saba, G., Dorain, E., Belmont, S. (2000). A Study to test the effectiveness of reading with Irlen coloured overlays for students with Irlen/Scotopic sensitivity syndrome. Paper presented to the 6th Irlen International Conference, Australia. 5-8 July.

    Jordan, I. (1998). Visual dyslexia: a guide for parents and teachers. United Kingdom: Desktop Publications.

    Khalil, N.F, Nicotra, A, Wilkins, A.J. (2010). Asymmetry of visual function in migraine with aura: correlation with lateralisation of headache and aura. Cephalalgia, in press.

    Kirby, J.R., & Williams, N.H. (1991). Learning problems: A cognitive approach. Toronto, Canada: Kagan & Woo.

    Knoblauch, K., Arditi, A., & Szlyk, J. (1991). Effects of chromatic and luminance contrast on reading. Journal of the Optical Society of America, 8(2), 428-439.

    Kriss, Isla, & Bruce J.W. Evans (2005). The relationship between dyslexia and Meares-Irlen Syndrome. Journal of Research in Reading, 28 (3) 350-364.

    Kruk, Karen Sumbler and Dale Willows (2008) Visual processing characteristics of children with Meares-Irlen Syndrome. Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 2008 28: 35–46.

    Kumagai, Keiko, PhD. (2006). Published paper. University of Tsukuba, Japan. Effect of colored films related in facilitating reading: The result of the General Japanese population and a dyslexic student.

    Kyd, L.J.C., Sutherland, G.F.M., & McGettrick, P.M. (1992). A preliminary appraisal of the Irlen screening process for Scotopic Sensitivity Syndrome and the effect of Irlen coloured overlays on reading. The British Orthoptic Journal, 49, 25-30.

    Lea, A.R., & Hailey, D.M. (1990). Tinted lenses in the treatment of the reading disabled. Canberra, A.C.T.: Australian Institute of Health.

    Lehmkuhle, S. (1993). Neurological basis of visual processes in reading. In D.M. Willows, R.S. Kruk, & E. Corcos (Eds.). Visual Processes in Reading and Reading disabilities. (pp. 77-94). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, N.J., 77-94.

    Lehmkuhle, S., Garzia, R.P., Turner, L., Hash, T., & Baro, J.A. (1993). A defective visual pathway in children with reading disability. New England Journal of Medicine, 328, 989-996.

    Lewine, J.D. (1999). Changes in visual evoked magnetic field for people with SSS. Fourth Biannual Australian Irlen Conference. Newcastle, Australia, May 20-22,1999.

    Lewine, J.D., Irlen, H.L., & Orrison, W.W. (1996). Visual evoked magnetic fields in Scotopic sensitivity syndrome. (Available from New Mexico Institute of Neuroimaging. The New Mexico Regional Field Medical Center: Albuquerque, NM).

    Lightstone, A., Lightstone, T., & Wilkins, A. (1999). Both coloured overlays and coloured lenses can improve reading fluency, but their optimal chromacities differ. Ophthalmological and Physiological Optics, 19, 279-285.

    Livingstone, M. (1994). Eye spy: decoding dyslexia. Focus, January 21, 1994, 1-2.

    Lopez, R., Yolton, R.L., Kohl, P., Smith, D.L. & Saxerud, M.H. (1994). Comparison of Irlen Scotopic Sensitivity Syndrome test results to a academic and visual performance data. Journal of the American Optometric Association, 65(10), 705-714.

    Lovegrove, W.J. (1996). Dyslexia and a transient/magnocellular pathway deficit: the current situation and future directions. The Australian Journal of Psychology, 48, 167-171.

    Lovegrove, W.J., Garzia, R.P., & Nicholson, S.B. (1990). Experimental evidence for a transient system deficit in specific reading disability. Journal of the American Optometric Association, 61, 137-146.

    Lovegrove, W., Martin, F., & Slaghuis, W.A. (1986). Theoretical and experimental case for a visual deficit in specific reading disability. Cognitive Neuropsychology, 3, 225-267.

    Lovegrove, W.J., & Williams, M.C. (1993). Visual temporal processing deficits in specific reading disability. In D.M. Willows, R.S. Kruk, & E. Carcos (Eds.), Visual process in reading and reading disabilities. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. 311-330.

    Lovett, M.W. (1987). A developmental approach to reading disability: Accuracy and speed criteria of normal and deficient reading skill. Child Development, 58, 234-60.

    Ludlow, A, Whitten, E.T. and Wilkins, A. (2012). Coloured Filters Enhance the Visual Perception of Social Cues in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders International Scholarly Research Network, ISRN Neurology, Volume 2012, Article ID 298098, 6 pages, doi: 10.5402/2012/298098.

    Ludlow, A., Wilkins, A., & Heaton, Pam. (2006). The effect of colored overlays on reading ability in children with Autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. Spring 2006.

    Ludlow, A.K, Wilkins, A. J, and Heaton, P. (2008). Coloured overlays enhance visual perceptual performance in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 2(3), 498-515.

    Ludlow, A.K. and Wilkins, A.J. (2009). Color as a therapeutic intervention. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 39(5), 815-818.

    Ludlow,A.K, Wilkins, A.J, and Heaton, P. (2006). The Effect of Coloured Overlays on Reading Ability in Children with Autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 36(4), 507-516.

    Lovett, M.W. (1987). A developmental approach to reading disability: accuracy and rate criteria in the subtyping of dyslexia. Brain and Language, 22, 69-71.

    Mackova, Z., (1992). Irlenover Syndrom Skotopickej Senzitivity. Psychologica a Patopsychologica, 27, 259-263.

    Maclachlan, A., Yale, S., & Wilkins, A. (1993). Open trial of subjective precision tinting: A follow-up of 55 patients. Opthamological and Physiological Optics, 13, 175-179.

    Martin, F., MacKenzie, B., Lovegrove, W., & McNicol, D. (1993). Irlen lenses and the treatment of specific reading disability. An evaluation of outcomes and processes. Australian Journal of Psychology, 45, 141-150.

    McLachlan, A., Yale, S., & Wilkins, A. (1993). Open trial of subjective precision tinting: A follow-up to 55 patients. Opthalmological and Physiological Optics, 13, 175-179.

    Mears, O. (1980). Figure/ground, brightness, contrast & reading disabilities. Visible Language, 14, 13-29.

    Menaker, S.J., Breton, M.D., Breton, M.L., Radcliffe, J., & Gole, G.A. (1993). Do tinted lenses improve the reading performance of dyslexic children? Archives of Ophthalmology, 111, 213-218.

    Nandakumar, Krithika and Susan J Leat (2008) Dyslexia: a review of two theories Clinical and Experimental Optometry 91.4 July 2008.

    Newby, R.F., & Lyon, G.R. (1991). Neurological subtypes of learning disabilities. In J.E. Obrzut & G.W. Hynd (Eds.), Neuropsychological foundations of learning disabilities. New York: Academic Press. 355-379.

    Newman Wright, B, Wilkins, A.J. and Zoukos, Y. (2007). Spectral filters can improve reading and visual search in patients with multiple sclerosis. Neurology 254(12), 1729-1735.

    Noble, J., Orton, M., Irlen, S., Robinson, G. (2004. A controlled field study of the use of coloured overlays on reading achievement. Australian Journal of Learning Disabilities, 9, 14-22.

    O'Connor, P.D., Sofo, F., Kendall, L., & Olsen, G. (1990). Reading disabilities and the effects of coloured filters. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 23, 597-603, 620.

    Pammer, K., & Lovegrove W. (2001). The influence of color on transient system activity: implications for dyslexia research. Perception & Psychophysics, 63(3), 490-500.

    Pammer, K., & Wheatley, C. (2001). Isolating the M(y)-cell response in dyslexia using the spatial frequency doubling illusion. Vision Research, 41, 2139-2147.

    Pavlides, C.A. (1985). Eye movements in dyslexia: Their diagnostic significance. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 18, 42-50.

    Ray, N.J., Fowler, S., & Stein, J.F. (2005). Yellow filters can improve magnocellular function: motion sensitivity, convergence, accommodation, and reading. Annals N.Y. Academy of Science, 1039, 283-293.

    Rickelman, R.J., & Henk, W.A. (1990). Colored overlays and tinted lens filters. The Reading Teacher, 44 (2), 166-168.

    Robinson, G.L. (1992). Coloured lenses and reading difficulties: What is research telling us? The Journal of the Victorian Adult Literacy and Basic Education Council Inc., 14(6), 16-20.

    Robinson, G.L. (1994). Coloured lenses and reading: a review of research into reading achievement, reading strategies and causal mechanisms. Australian Journal of Special Education, 18, 3-14.

    Robinson, G.L. (1996). Irlen lenses and adults: preliminary results of a controlled study of reading speed, accuracy and comprehension. Irlen Institute Fourth International Directors/Screeners Conference, June 27-30, 1996, New Orleans, LA.

    Robinson, G.L. (2000). Irlen coloured filters and adults. Australian Journal of Learning Disabilities, 5(1), 15-23.

    Robinson, G.L., & Conway, R.N.F. (1990). The effects of Irlen colored lenses on specific reading skills and perception of ability: A twelve month validity study. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 23, 589-596.

    Robinson, G.L., & Conway, R.N.F. (1994). Irlen filters and reading strategies: effect of coloured filters on reading achievement, specific reading strategies and perception of ability. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 79, 467-483.

    Robinson, G.L., & Conway, R.N.F. (2000). Irlen lenses and adults: a small scale study of reading speed, accuracy, comprehension and self-image. Australian Journal of Learning Disabilities, 5, 4-13.

    Robinson, G.L., & Foreman, P.J. (1999). The effects of coloured filters on eye movement: a long-term placebo controlled and masked study. Behavioral Optometry, 7(4), 5-17.

    Robinson, G.L., & Foreman, P.J. (1999). Scotopic sensitivity/Irlen syndrome and the use of coloured filters: A long-term placebo controlled study of reading strategies using analysis of miscue. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 88, 35-52.

    Robinson, G. L., & Foreman, P. J. (1999). Scotopic sensitivity/Irlen syndrome and the use of coloured filters: A long-term placebo controlled and masked study of reading achievement and perception of ability. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 89(1), 83-113.

    Robinson, G.L., & Foreman, P.J. (2004). The family incidence of a visual-perceptual subtype of dyslexia. Focus on Dyslexia Research Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 27-40.

    Robinson, G.L., Foreman, P.J., & Dear, K.G.B. (1996). The familial incidence of symptoms of Scotopic Sensitivity/Irlen Syndrome. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 83, 1043-1055.

    Robinson, G.L., Foreman, P.J., & Dear, K.G.B. (2000). The familial incidence of symptoms of Scotopic sensitivity/Irlen syndrome: comparison of referred and mass-screened groups. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 91, 707-724.

    Robinson, G.L., Foreman, P.J., Dear, K.G.B., and Sparkes, D. (2004). The Family Incidence of a Visual-Perceptual Subtype of Dyslexia. Nova Science Publishers, 27-40.

    Robinson, G.L., Hobbs, M., Thomas, G., Freney, P., & Wilson, E. (1997). The incidence of symptoms of Irlen syndrome/Scotopic sensitivity in a sample of Australian and New Zealand Schools. Unpublished manuscript.

    Robinson, G.L., Hopkins, B., & Davies, T. (1995). The incidence of Scotopic sensitivity syndrome in secondary school populations: a preliminary survey. The Bulletin for Learning Disabilities, 5, 36-56.

    Robinson, G.L., McGregor, N.R., Roberts, T.K., Dunstan, R.H., & Butt, H. (2001). A biochemical analysis of people with chronic fatigue who have Irlen syndrome: speculation concerning immune system dysfunction. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 93, 486-504.

    Robinson, G.L., Roberts, T.K., McGregor, N.R., & Barbolini, G., (2000). A biochemical analysis of people with chronic fatigue who have Irlen syndrome. Paper presented to the 6th Irlen International Conference, Australia. 5-8 July 2000.

    Robinson, G.L., Roberts, T.K., McGregor, N.R., Dunstan, R.H. & Butt, H (2001). Biochemical Analysis of People with Chronic Fatigue Who Have Irlen Syndrome: Speculation Concerning Immune System Dysfunction. Perceptual and Motor Skills. 93, 486-504.

    Robinson, G.L., & Whiting, P.R. (2003). The interpretation of emotion from facial expression for children with visual processing problems. Australasian Journal of Special Education, 27(2), 50-67.

    Romani, A., Conte, S., Callieco, R., Bergamaschi, R., Versino, M., Lanzi, G., Zambrino, C.A., & Cosi, V. (2001). Visual evoked potential abnormalities in dyslexic children. Functional Neurology, 16(3), 219-229.

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